“Taxpayers should, of course, carefully consider whether to engage in a lifetime gifting strategy, which has other considerations beyond just estate taxes (such as the tradeoff with the ‘step‑up’ in basis, and non-tax family related considerations).”
Negotiations in Washington continue to present a series of changing scenarios for estate planning. Until the ink is dry in the Oval Office, taxpayers face an uncertain legislative environment, says a recent article titled “Estate Planning in an Uncertain Time” from CPA Practice Advisor. Many people hurried to use lifetime gifting strategies because of estate tax provisions contained in earlier versions of the infrastructure bill, but even with these provisions dropped (for now), there are still good reasons to use lifetime gifting strategies.
The current $11.7 million estate/gift tax exemption will still be reduced on January 1, 2026, even if Congress takes no other action. Taxpayers who have not taken advantage of this “extra” exemption before then will lose the opportunity forever.
Any post-appreciation transfer on gifted assets accrues outside of the taxpayer’s estate. For younger individuals and for transferred assets with high potential for appreciation, this could have a major impact. Taxpayers who reside in states with a state estate tax, but no state gift tax, may find that lifetime gifting could reduce state estate tax liability.
For those who have already used all of their estate/gift tax exemption, the current low interest rate environment makes certain advanced estate planning techniques more appealing. Sales to IDGTS (Intentionally Defective Grantor Trusts, a type of irrevocable trust), intra-family loans and GRATS (Grantor Retained Annuity Trusts) are more effective when interest rates are low.
The two interest rates to watch for these strategies are the federal Section 7520 rate and the short-term, mid-term and long-term applicable federal rate (AFR). If transferred assets appreciate faster than the benchmark interest rate, any excess appreciation passes without any estate/gift tax exemption being used.
Interest rates have increased in recent months. However, by historical standards, they remain low.
IDGTs are expected to remain popular for making lifetime transfers. They are a type of trust outside the taxpayer’s estate for estate tax purposes and are considered to belong to the grantor for income tax purposes. The grantor is responsible for paying the income tax of the trust, which permits the grantor to make a tax-free gift, while the assets of the IDGT may grow without income taxes.
The grantor may also sell assets to an IDGT without creating a realization event for income tax purposes. Congress may consider this a little too effective for estate taxes, but for now, this strategy is still available.
Speak with an experienced estate planning attorney to review your current lifetime gifting plan and see if it needs to be revised. Of course, if you don’t have an estate plan, now is the time to get that underway.
Reference: CPA Practice Advisor (Nov. 17, 2021) “Estate Planning in an Uncertain Time”